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Sunday, January 8, 2017

Armenian heart - Yerevan

In the South-Eastern part of Yerevan, on the ARIN Berd hill, was built the fortress of Erebuni, which was the first major military-strategic centre of the country of Aza in the Ararat plain. Until the first half of the twentieth century nobody knew about the whereabouts of Erebuni. Only in 1950 during exploration of ARIN Berd monument, discovered the cuneiform inscription of Argishti I, which, as it turned out, after decryption, was a document about the construction of the city-fortress of Erebuni. The cuneiform writing says: "God's grandeur Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, this powerful fortress was built, established for it the name of Erebuni, to the power of the country Biaynili, and to intimidate the enemy. By the greatness of Khaldi, the son of Menua, the mighty king, king of the country Biaynili, the ruler of Tushpa." This confirms that the city was founded in 782 BC by king Argishti I. As it turned out from cuneiform, in the past, Yerevan was called Erebuni, which was founded in Irpuni, Erivuni, Erivan, Yerevan. Erebuni fortress is a special architectural complex with a
Palace, religious and economic constructions, which are placed on three sides of the Central square.

To the left of the entrance is the temple of the God Khaldi, right – farm buildings and granary, opposite – Palace complex with a peristyle courtyard and a private Susi temple, dedicated to God Ivarsa. The citadel is surrounded by high and thick walls, the entrance consists of three series. The rich interior decoration of the Palace and of the temple shows a beautiful and luxurious frescoes on religious and secular themes: hunting, farm work. The walls of temples were decorated with murals with scenes of sacrifice and the procession of the gods. Frescoes are valuable pieces of art of Urartu. Later, one century after the Foundation of Erebuni, in the Ararat valley king Rusa II builds the city of God Teisheba – Teishebaini, which is becoming a major economic centre. Here is transporting numerous items made in Erebuni, and which are now exhibited in the Museum of Erebuni. After the fall of Urartu in the sixth century BC and in later times Erebuni existed as a city rendermessage and Hellenistic periods. This is evidenced by the found archaeological materials, as well as two Milesian coins and coins of Caesar Augustus, three silver Riton and the pitcher. During the reign of the Achaemenids in ARIN Berd was rebuilt a number of buildings – the Temple of the God Khaldi was turned into a multi-channel hall-Apadana. Rebuilt the temple of Susi and peristyle courtyard, and was thereby changed the entire plan of the fortress. These restructuring indicate that Erebuni continued to exist as an administrative center in the Ararat valley. In subsequent years, the renewed archaeological excavations of the fortress. With confidence we can say that the monument is fraught with a lot of secrets, discovery and study of which will greatly add to the history of the city of Erebuni. In 1968, in honor of the founding of the city of Erebuni, which was 2750 years old, on the slope of the ARIN Berd hill was opened in the Erebuni Museum where are exhibited valuable specimens of culture of Urartu.

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